Creative Thinking with TED Talks
书 名：Creative Thinking with TED Talks
Creative Thinking with TED Talks
TED演讲在全球范围内广受欢迎，它倡导的理念是—— “Ideas Worth Spreading”。TED通过演讲的方式将世界联结起来，传递给全世界更多激动人心的想法。TED演讲，话题丰富 ，新颖深刻。 学习TED能很好地培养抽象能力、自我表达能力及思辨能力。TED是提高英语听、说、读、写语言技能优秀的学习材料。
The next outbreak? We're not ready! 1
Cope with anxiety! 11
Want to be happy? Be grateful! 24
Sleep is important! 35
Free Time Control 50
30 is not the "New 20” 63
Adults can learn from kids 76
Get better at the things you care about 86
Grit: the power of passion and perseverance 98
What makes a good life?
------Lessons from the longest study on happiness 108
The next outbreak? We're not ready!
Entrepreneur and businessman,Bill Gates founded and built the world's largest software business, Microsoft, through technological innovation, keen business strategy and aggressive business tactics. In the process, Gates became one of the richest men in the world. In February 2014, Gates announced that he was stepping down as Microsoft's chairman to focus on charitable work
at his foundation.
With passionate tech visionary, Bill Gates changed the world while leading Microsoft to dizzying success. Now he's doing it again through his global philanthropic work that strives to reduce inequity everywhere.
When I was a kid, the disaster we worried about most was a nuclear war. That's why we had a barrel like this down in our basement, filled with cans of food and water. When the nuclear attack came, we were supposed to go downstairs, hunker down, and eat out of that barrel.
Today the greatest risk of global catastrophe doesn't look like this. Instead, it looks like this. If anything kills over 10 million people in the next few decades, it's most likely to be a highly infectious virus rather than a war. Not missiles, but microbes. Now, part of the reason for this is that we've invested a huge amount in nuclear deterrents. But we've actually invested very little in a system to stop an epidemic. We're not ready for the next epidemic.
Let's look at Ebola. I'm sure all of you read about it in the newspaper, lots of tough challenges. I followed it carefully through the case analysis tools we use to track polio eradication. And as you look at what went on, the problem wasn't that there was a system that didn't work well enough, the problem was that we didn't have a system at all. In fact, there's some pretty obvious key missing pieces.
We didn't have a group of epidemiologists ready to go, who would have gone, seen what the disease was, seen how far it had spread. The case reports came in on paper. It was very delayed before they were put online and they were extremely inaccurate. We didn't have a medical team ready to go. We didn't have a way of preparing people. Now Médecins Sans Frontières did a great job orchestrating volunteers. But even so, we were far slower than we should have been getting the thousands of workers into these countries. And a large epidemic would require us to have hundreds of thousands of workers. There was no one there to look at treatment approaches. No one to look at the diagnostics. No one to figure out what tools should be used. As an example, we could have taken the blood of survivors, processed it, and put that plasma back in people to protect them. But that was never tried.
So there was a lot that was missing. And these things are really a global failure. The WHO is funded to monitor epidemics, but not to do these things I talked about. Now, in the movies it's quite different. There's a group of handsome epidemiologists ready to go, they move in, they save the day, but that's just pure Hollywood.
The failure to prepare could allow the next epidemic to be dramatically more devastating than Ebola Let's look at the progression of Ebola over this year. About 10,000 people died, and nearly all were in the three West African countries. There's three reasons why it didn't spread more. The first is that there was a lot of heroic work by the health workers. They found the people and they prevented more infections. The second is the nature of the virus. Ebola does not spread through the air. And by the time you're contagious, most people are so sick that they're bedridden. Third, it didn't get into many urban areas. And that was just luck. If it had gotten into a lot more urban areas, the case numbers would have been much larger.
So next time, we might not be so lucky. You can have a virus where people feel well enough while they're infectious that they get on a plane or they go to a market. The source of the virus could be a natural epidemic like Ebola, or it could be bioterrorism. So there are things that would literally make things a thousand times worse. In fact, let's look at a model of a virus spread through the air, like the Spanish Flu back in 1918. So here's what would happen: It would spread throughout the world very, very quickly. And you can see over 30 million people died from that epidemic. So this is a serious problem. We should be concerned.
But in fact, we can build a really good response system. We have the benefits of all the science and technology that we talk about here. We've got cell phones to get information from the public and get information out to them. We have satellite maps where we can see where people are and where they're moving. We have advances in biology that should dramatically change the turnaround time to look at a pathogen and be able to make drugs and vaccines that fit for that pathogen. So we can have tools, but those tools need to be put into an overall global health system. And we need preparedness.
The best lessons, I think, on how to get prepared are again, what we do for war. For soldiers, we have full-time, waiting to go. We have reserves that can scale us up to large numbers. NATO has a mobile unit that can deploy very rapidly. NATO does a lot of war games to check, are people well trained? Do they understand about fuel and logistics and the same radio frequencies? So they are absolutely ready to go. So those are the kinds of things we need to deal with an epidemic.
What are the key pieces? First, we need strong health systems in poor countries. That's where mothers can give birth safely, kids can get all their vaccines. But, also where we'll see the outbreak very early on. We need a medical reserve corps: lots of people who've got the training and background who are ready to go, with the expertise. And then we need to pair those medical people with the military. taking advantage of the military's ability to move fast, do logistics and secure areas. We need to do simulations, germ games, not war games, so that we see where the holes are. The last time a germ game was done in the United States was back in 2001, and it didn't go so well. So far the score is germs: 1, people: 0. Finally, we need lots of advanced R&D in areas of vaccines and diagnostics. There are some big breakthroughs, like the Adeno-associated virus, that could work very, very quickly.
Now I don't have an exact budget for what this would cost, but I'm quite sure it's very modest compared to the potential harm. The World Bank estimates that if we have a worldwide flu epidemic, global wealth will go down by over three trillion dollars and we'd have millions and millions of deaths. These investments offer significant benefits beyond just being ready for the epidemic. The primary healthcare, the R&D, those things would reduce global health equity and make the world more just as well as more safe.
So I think this should absolutely be a priority. There's no need to panic. We don't have to hoard cans of spaghetti or go down into the basement. But we need to get going, because time is not on our side.
In fact, if there's one positive thing that can come out of the Ebola epidemic, it's that it can serve as an early warning, a wake-up call, to get ready. If we start now, we can be ready for the next epidemic.
In 2014, the world avoided a global outbreak of Ebola, thanks to thousands of selfless health workers -- plus, frankly, some very good luck. In hindsight, we know what we should have done better. So, now's the time, Bill Gates suggests, to put all our good ideas into practice, from scenario planning to vaccine research to health worker training. As he says, "There's no need to panic ... but we need to get going."
1. squat or crouch down low.
"he hunkered down beside her"
2. hunch; bend.
"burly workers hunkered over the menu of the day"
3.take shelter in a defensive position.
"the best way to deal with your father is to hunker down and let it blow over
4. hunker down
apply oneself seriously to a task.
"students hunkered down to prepare for the examinations"
squat (down) · duck (down) · hunker down · bob down · hunch over ·
the complete destruction of something.
"the eradication of poverty"
elimination · removal · suppression · extermination · destruction · killing
an event causing great and often sudden damage or suffering; a disaster.
"a national economic catastrophe"
disaster · crisis · ruin · tragedy · blow · shock · blight · trouble · misfortune
1. (of a disease) spread from one person or organism to another by direct or indirect contact.
"a contagious infection"
infectious · transmittable · transmissible · transferable · spreadable· infective
2. (of a person or animal) likely to transmit a disease by contact with other people or animals.
"precautions are taken with anyone who seems contagious"
plaguelike · communicable · epidemic · pestilent · dangerous
3. (of an emotion, feeling, or attitude) likely to spread to and affect others.
"her enthusiasm is contagious"missile
a substance used to stimulate the production of antibodies and provide immunity against one or several diseases, prepared from the causative agent of a disease, its products, or a synthetic substitute, treated to act as an antigen without inducing the disease.
"every year the flu vaccine is modified to deal with new strains of the virus"
diagnostics (plural noun)
a distinctive symptom or characteristic.
a program or routine that helps a user to identify errors.
the practice or techniques of diagnosis.
"advanced medical diagnostics"Discussions
1. Why did we have a barrel down in our basement, filled with cans of food and water?
2. What's the greatest risk of global catastrophe now?
3. What's the reason for the failure of preparation ?
4. What shall we do to to be ready for the next pandemic spreading?
Cope with anxiety！
Olivia Remes is a PhD student at the University of Cambridge. Her research focuses on mental disorders and is using the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) study, one of the largest, European cohort studies looking at chronic diseases and the way people live their lives. She has received a PhD studentship from the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR).
Imagine that you're getting ready to go to a party. You feel excited, but also nervous, and you've got this feeling in your stomach almost like another heartbeat. There's something holding you back, holding you back from getting too happy. "No, you mustn't get too happy. Better to be cautious, otherwise, something bad might happen." You start wondering, "Who should I talk to when I get there? What if no one wants to talk to me? What if they'll think I'm weird?"
When you arrive at the party, someone comes up to you and starts talking with you, and as this is happening, your mind starts racing, your heart begins pounding, you start sweating, and it feels almost like you're dissociating from yourself, like it's an out-of-body experience, and you're just watching yourself talk. "Keep it together," you say to yourself, but you can't.
And it's just getting worse: after a few minutes of conversation, the person you've been speaking to leaves, and you feel utterly defeated. This has been happening to you in social situations for a long time. Or imagine every time you go out, and you're in crowded places, you feel this panic starting to arise.
When you're surrounded by lots of people, like on a bus, you start to feel hot, nauseous, uneasy, and to prevent this from happening, you start avoiding a lot of places which makes you feel lonely and isolated.
You or the person in both of these scenarios have anxiety disorders, and what I can tell you is that anxiety is very common, much more than people think. Right now, one in 14 people around the world have an anxiety disorder, and each year, it costs over 42 billion dollars to treat this mental health problem.
To show you the impact that anxiety has on someone's life, I will just mention that anxiety can lead to depression, school dropout, suicide. It makes it harder to focus, and to hold down a job, and it can lead to relationship breakdown. But a lot of people don't know this, that's why, a lot of times, people sweep anxiety under the rug as just nerves that you need to get over, as a weakness, but anxiety is so much more than that.
A reason why so many people don't think it's important is that they don't know what it is. Is it your personality? Is it an illness? Is it a normal sensation? What is? That's why it's important to differentiate what is normal anxiety from what is an anxiety disorder.
Normal anxiety is an emotion that we all get when we're in stressful situations. For example, let's say, you're out in the woods, and you come face-to-face with a bear. This will probably make you feel a little bit anxious, and you'll probably want to start running like crazy. This anxious feeling that you get is good because it protects you, it saves you, and it makes you on a hightail it out of there, although maybe it's not such a good idea to start running when you see a bear. I really don't think you can outrun a bear. Anxiety helps us meet our deadlines at work and deal with emergencies in life, but when this anxiety emotion is taken to the extreme and arises in situations which don't pose a real threat, then that's when you might have an anxiety disorder.
For example, people with generalized anxiety disorder worry excessively and constantly about everything going on in their lives, and they find it very difficult to control this worry. They also have symptoms like restlessness, fear, they find it hard to fall asleep at night, and they can't concentrate on tasks. In spite of whatever kind of anxiety you might be suffering from, there is something that you can do to lower it.
It works, and it's simpler than you may think. All too often, we're given medication for mental disorders, but it doesn't always work in the long run. Symptoms often come back, and you're back to where you started. So here's something else to consider: the way you cope or handle things has a direct impact on how much anxiety you're experiencing, and if you tweak the way you're coping, then you can lower your anxiety.
In our study at the University of Cambridge, we showed that women living in poor areas have a higher risk for anxiety than women living in richer areas. These results didn't surprise us, but when we looked closer, we found that women living in poor areas, if they had a particular set of coping resources, they didn't have anxiety, while women living in poor areas without these coping resources had anxiety.
Other studies showed that people who had faced extreme circumstances, who had faced adversity, been through wars and natural disasters, if they had coping resources, they remained healthy and free of mental disorders, while others, facing the same hardships but without coping skills went on a downward spiral and developed mental disorders.
So what are some of these coping resources, and how can we use them to lower our anxiety? And before I dive into what they are, I'd like to point out - and I think this is so interesting - you can develop these coping resources or coping skills on your own through the things that you do; you can take charge of your anxiety and lower it, which I think is so empowering.
Today I'll be talking about three coping resources, and the first one is feeling like you're in control of your life. People who feel like they're more in control of their life have better mental health. If you feel like you're lacking in control in life, then research shows that you should engage in experiences that give you greater control. I'll show you what I mean: do you sometimes find that you put off starting something because you just don't feel ready enough? Do you find it hard to make decisions like what to wear, what to eat who to date, which job to take up? Do you tend to waste a lot of time deciding what you might do while nothing gets done? A way to overcome indecision and this lack of control in life, is to do it badly.
There's a quote by writer and poet GK Chesterton that says, "Anything worth doing is worth doing badly the first time." The reason why this works so well is that it speeds up your decision-making and catapults you straight into action, otherwise, you can spend hours deciding how you should go about doing something or what you should do. This can be paralyzing and can make you afraid to even begin. All too often, we aim for perfection, but never end up doing anything because the standards that we set for ourselves are too high, they're intimidating, which stresses us out so we delay starting something, or we might even abandon the whole thing altogether. Do it badly frees you up to take action. I mean you know how it is: so often, we want to do something perfectly we can't start until it's the perfect time, until we've got all the skills, but this can be daunting and stressful so why not just jump into it just do it however, without worrying if it's good or bad? This will make it that much easier to start something and as you're doing it badly to finish it, and when you look back, you'll realize, more often than not, that actually it's not that bad.
A close friend of mine who has anxiety started using this motto, and this is what she said, "When I started using this motto, my life transformed. I found I could complete tasks in much shorter time periods than before. Do it badly gave me wings to take risks, to try something differently, and to have way more fun during the whole process. It took the anxiety out of everything and replaced it with excitement." So do it badly, and you can improve as you go along. I'd like to ask you to think about this: if you start using this motto today, how would your life change?
The second coping strategy is to forgive yourself, and this is very powerful if you use it. People with anxiety think a lot about what they're doing wrong, their worries, and how bad they're feeling. Imagine if you had a friend who constantly pointed out everything you're doing wrong, and everything that was wrong with your life. You would probably want to get rid of this person right away, wouldn't you? Well, people with anxiety do this to themselves all day long. They're not kind to themselves. So maybe it's time to start being kinder with ourselves, time to start supporting ourselves, and a way to do this is to forgive yourself for any mistakes you think you might have made just a few moments ago to mistakes made in the past.
If you had a panic attack and are embarrassed about it, forgive yourself; if you wanted to talk to someone, but couldn't muster up the courage to do so, don't worry about it, let it go; forgive yourself for anything and everything and this will give you greater compassion towards yourself. You can't begin to heal until you do this.
And last but not least, having a purpose and meaning in life is a very important coping mechanism. Whatever we do in life, whatever work we produce, however much money we make, we cannot be fully happy until we know that someone else needs us, that someone else depends on our accomplishments, or on the love that we have to share. It's not that we need other people's good words to keep going in life, but if we don't do something with someone else in mind, then we're at much higher risk for poor mental health.
The famous neurologist Dr. Victor Frankel said, "For people who think there's nothing to live for and nothing more to expect from life, the question is getting these people to realize that life is still expecting something from them."
Doing something with someone else in mind can carry you through the toughest times. You'll know the why for your existence and will be able to bear almost any how; almost any how. So the question is do you do at least one thing with someone else in mind?
This could be volunteering, or it could be sharing this knowledge that you gained today with other people, especially those who need it most, and these are often the people who don't have money for therapy, and they're usually the ones with the highest rates of anxiety disorders. Give it to them, share with others, because it can really improve your mental health.
So I would like to conclude with this: another way you can do something with someone else in mind is finishing work that might benefit future generations. Even if these people will never realize what you've done for them, it doesn't matter, because you will know, and this will make you realize the uniqueness and importance of your life.
Anxiety is one of most prevalent mental health disorders, with 1 out of 14 people around the world being likely affected. Leading up to conditions such as depression, increased risk for suicide, disability and requirement of high health services, very few people who often need treatment actually receive it. In her talk “How to cope with anxiety”, Olivia Remes of the University of Cambridge will share her vision on anxiety and will unravel ways to treat and manage this health disorder. Arguing that treatments such as psychotherapy and medication exist and often result in poor outcome and high rates of relapses, she will emphasise the importance of harnessing strength in ourselves as we modify our problem-coping mechanisms. At TEDx UHasselt 2017, Olivia will stress that by allowing ourselves to believe that what happens in life is comprehensive, meaningful, and manageable, one can significantly improve their risk of developing anxiety disorders.
1. a written outline of a movie, novel, or stage work giving details of the plot and individual scenes.
"imagine the scenarios for four short stories"
plot · outline · storyline · framework · structure · scheme · plan · layout
2. a postulated sequence or development of events.
"a possible scenario is that he was attacked after opening the front door"
sequence of events · course of events · chain of events
3. a setting, in particular for a work of art or literature.
"the scenario is World War II"
setting · background · context · scene · milieu
1. sudden uncontrollable fear or anxiety, often causing wildly unthinking behavior.
"she hit him in panic"
alarm · anxiety · nervousness · fear · fright · dread · terror
2. feel or cause to feel panic.
"the crowd panicked and stampeded for the exit"
be alarmed · be scared · be nervous · be afraid · overreact
1. cause (a person or part of the body) to become partly or wholly incapable of movement.
"Mrs. Burrows had been paralyzed by a stroke"
incapacitated · immobilized · powerless · disable · immobilize
2. render (someone) unable to think or act normally, especially through panic or fear.
"some people are paralyzed by the thought of failure"
immobilize · transfix · become rooted to the spot · freeze · stun · render
3. bring (a system, place, or organization) to a standstill by causing disruption or chaos.
"the regional capital was paralyzed by a general strike"
bring to a standstill · immobilize · bring to a (grinding) halt · halt · stop · freeze · cripple · disable · put out of action/commission · render inoperative · deactivate · disenable
1. feeling or showing embarrassment.
"an embarrassed silence"
awkward · self-conscious · uneasy · uncomfortable · unsettled
2. having or showing financial difficulties.
"he had to sort out the embarrassed financial affairs of his brother"
1. a state of confusion.
"tiresome days of mess and disorder"
untidiness · disorderliness · mess · disarray · disorganization · chaos ·
2. disrupt the systematic functioning or neat arrangement of.
"they are disordering the political landscape"
1. the quality of being the only one of its kind.
"the ability to celebrate the uniqueness of each individual"
2. the quality of being particularly remarkable, special, or unusual.
"the actors bring creativity and uniqueness to their characters"
1. Describe two scenarios that show you are in anxiety.
2. What's anxiety disorder?
3. What's the result of the study at University of Cambridge?
4. What strategies are mentioned to cope with anxiety?
5. How can we apply those strategies to our life ?